There is nothing better to start with it than the official introduction:
Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has efficient high-level data structures and a simple but effective approach to object-oriented programming. Python’s elegant syntax and dynamic typing, together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms.
I will discuss most of these features in the next section
Some Python’s features
- Open source: Python is a very permissive, free and open source software licensed under a GPL compatible license. It is based on the concept of a community which shares knowledge, and this is one of the reasons why Python is one of the most (if I don’t say the most) good programming language.
- Easy to learn: Python is designed to be easy to learn programming language with a very simple syntax and semantics. Python is extremely easy to get started with. Indeed, you can learn the basics of Python in few weeks.
- High level language: Python is a very-high-level programming language: Python programs is 3 to 5 times smaller than Java programs. So, using Python will increase the productivity.
- Simple: Python is very simple. It’s designed to be easy to read. A common problem in most programming language is: “It’s harder to read code than write it”. Hopefully, Pythonic have not this problem.
- Object oriented: Python supports procedure-oriented programming as well as object-oriented programming. Python has a very powerful but simplistic way of doing OOP, especially when compared to C++ or Java.
- Interpreted: Python unlike C, C++ or C# does not require compilation, You just run the program directly from the source code, which make Python much more portable.
- Dynamic: Python is a dynamic typing programming language, which let new code to be executed on the fly without limitations. This is very useful in science and engineering